Human Capital and Labour Report Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers. It is bordered by South Africa to the south, Botswana to the southwest, Zambia to the northwest and Mozambique to the east. The country’s economic situation is frail with slowing economic growth, and faces numerous challenges such as untenably high external debt levels, massive accelerated de-industrialisation and informalisation. In 2014, however, Zimbabwe’s GDP per capita grew to USD 1,031 in nominal terms in 2014. The IMF forecasts that it will increase to USD 1,174 by 2019. Zimbabwe has a strong human resource base as a result of its growing young population. Through job creation initiatives and skills development efforts, the Government of Zimbabwe is striving to enhance the country’s human capital potential. Zimbabwe’s education system, once considered the best in Africa, has faced serious setbacks, but is improving with increasing enrolment rates, as seen in tertiary enrolments and one of the highest adult literacy rates in Africa. While progress is being made to improve socio-economic conditions in the country, poverty and inequality are still rife and exacerbated by a high prevalence of malaria and HIV/AIDS, which threatens to undermine Zimbabwe’s labour force. By improving skills development, specifically through increased investments to Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET), the Government is enhancing its talent pool and increasing employment opportunities, ultimately fostering growth in the labour market and effectively contributing to the advancement of the country’s future socio-economic climate.
This country analysis focuses on broad human capital indicators including:
- Country profile, including a brief overview of the country; corruption and governance indicators; and the business culture.
- Economic indicators, including an overview of the economy; indigenisation and economic empowerment; largest companies; foreign aid and foreign investment.
- Socio-demographic indicators, including population parameters, standard of living and poverty measures.
- Healthcare and wellness: The focus here is on the impact of Tuberculosis (TB), HIV/AIDS and malaria on the workforce and workplace; the availability of specialist healthcare and also primary and secondary healthcare.
- Education trends, including the education level of the population and workforce; education standards and output; as well as the training and skills development framework.
- Labour force, including the economically active population; job creation; employment sectors; skills shortages; employment of expatriates; brain drain; industrial relations; professional human resource management and more.
Throughout the research, implications, challenges and recommendations are offered to employers, policy makers, donors, investors and the human resource management fraternity. This is all done within the context of the Zimbabwean socio-economic realities.
Where appropriate, comparisons were made against South Africa and Nigeria. Nigeria was selected because it is the largest economy in Africa; South Africa for being the second largest economy and most modern economy in Africa. The data of these countries are used to provide context and perspective.
The country analysis refers only briefly to the Zimbabwean economy, political situation or general risk factors. There are dozens of platforms, reports, research and publications available in that regard for those who wish to apprise themselves of information relating to those areas.
The research is unique by its predominant focus on the Zimbabwean labour force.