Human Capital and Labour Report Mozambique

The Republic of Mozambique is situated in the southeast of the African continent. The country is bordered by Tanzania to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, Zimbabwe to the west, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest. Mozambique covers an area of 801,537 sq. kilometers and is a popular tourist destination, home to unspoilt beaches, forests, islands, game parks and captivating architecture. From 1993 to 2009 Mozambique was the fastest growing non-oil economy in sub-Saharan Africa, with growth based on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), the extraction of natural resources and the discovery of natural gas, tourism, official development assistance and agriculture. The quality of education in Mozambique is improving with increased enrolments and improved quality of education. The country’s young, growing population which is increasingly becoming better educated represents a potential source of dynamism for economic growth in Mozambique. Despite its impressive growth Mozambique remains one of the least developed and poorest nations in the world. Mozambique’s GDP per capita is one of the lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, placing it in the category of lower-income group of countries according to World Bank ratings. Mozambique also has a high prevalence of malaria and HIV/AIDS which poses a significant challenge to its working population. Finally, the country’s competitiveness and private sector development is also hindered by weak institutional and human capacity across the private, public and financial sectors.

This country analysis focuses on broad human capital indicators including:

  • Country profile, including a brief overview of the country; corruption and governance indicators; and the business culture.
  • Economic indicators, including an overview of the economy; largest companies; foreign aid and foreign investment.
  • Socio-demographic indicators, including population parameters, standard of living and poverty measures.
  • Healthcare and wellness: The focus here is on the impact of Tuberculosis (TB), HIV/AIDS and malaria on the workforce and workplace; the availability of specialist healthcare and also primary and secondary healthcare.
  • Education trends, including the education level of the population and workforce; education standards and output; as well as the training and skills development framework.
  • Labour force, including the economically active population; job creation; employment sectors; skills shortages; employment of expatriates; brain drain; industrial relations; professional human resource management and more.

Throughout the research, implications, challenges and recommendations are offered to employers, policy makers, donors, investors and the human resource management fraternity. This is all done within the context of the Mozambican socio-economic realities.

Where appropriate, comparisons were made against South Africa, Nigeria and Angola. Nigeria was selected because it is the largest economy in Africa; South Africa for being the second largest economy and most modern economy in Africa; and Angola for its similar historical and geographic context. The data of these countries are used to provide context and perspective.

The country analysis refers only briefly to the Mozambican economy, political situation or general risk factors. There are dozens of platforms, reports, research and publications available in that regard for those who wish to apprise themselves of information relating to those areas.

The research is unique by its predominant focus on the Mozambican labour force.


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