Human Capital and Labour Report Ghana
Ghana is on the west coast of Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Côte d’Ivoire and Togo. The country comprises a total area of 238 535sq km or 92 099sq mi. The capital and largest city is Accra. Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland Trust territory, Ghana gained its independence in 1957. Ghana’s economy has seen tremendous growth of over 700% from 2000 to 2012, and it is expected to grow even more to around USD70 billion by 2018. Ghana’s fast-growing economy presents an opportunity for growth and employment creation. Ghana has a growing youth population, which constitutes around 58% of the total population. Ghana’s population dividend has huge potential to help boost economic growth and development on the country and is very attractive for investors and companies in consumer markets and to infrastructure providers. Ghana’s education system has seen major improvements with increased enrolments across all levels of education, most notably for higher education, which experienced a 168% increase over six years from 2005 to 2012. Future prospects for employers are looking better with an increasingly skilled labour force emerging. Despite impressive economic growth and improvements in the education system, Ghana still faces numerous challenges including poverty, poor infrastructure and living standards, and unemployment. There is also a skills mismatch which the country urgently needs to address in order to ensure that it capitalizes on its potential talent pool.
This country analysis focuses on broad human capital indicators including:
- Country profile, including a brief overview of the country; corruption and governance indicators; and the business culture.
- Economic indicators, including an overview of the economy; largest companies; foreign aid and foreign investment.
- Socio-demographic indicators, including population parameters, standard of living and poverty measures.
- Healthcare and wellness: The focus here is on the impact of Tuberculosis (TB), HIV/AIDS and malaria on the workforce and workplace; the availability of specialist healthcare and also primary and secondary healthcare.
- Education trends, including the education level of the population and workforce; education standards and output; as well as the training and skills development framework.
- Labour force, including the economically active population; job creation; employment sectors; skills shortages; employment of expatriates; brain drain; industrial relations; professional human resource management; economic empowerment and more.
Throughout the research, implications, challenges and recommendations are offered to employers, policy makers, donors, investors and the human resource management fraternity. This is all done within the context of the Ghanaian socio-economic realities.
Where appropriate, comparisons were made against South Africa, Nigeria, and sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria was selected because it is the largest economy in Africa; South Africa for being the second largest economy and most modern economy in Africa. The data of these countries are used to provide context and perspective.
The country analysis refers only briefly to the Ghanaian economy, political situation or general risk factors. There are dozens of platforms, reports, research and publications available in that regard for those who wish to apprise themselves of information relating to those areas.
The research is unique by its predominant focus on the Ghanaian labour force.